Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both
Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard; only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during transport with any effects largely confined to the package
Division 1.5: Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
Class 1 goods are products that possess the ability to alight or detonate as a consequence of a chemical reaction.
Explosives are classified as a hazardous product for a pretty clear reason – they can explode.
Naturally, goods that are partial to spontaneous combustion during transit if they aren't properly handled are an issue – however, you may be surprised by some of the items that are in this category.
Ammunition Fireworks Flares Blasting caps and detonators Fuse Primers Explosive charges such as those used for blasting, demolition, etc. Detonating cord Air bag inflators Igniters Rockets TNT RDX PETN
Division 2.1: Flammable gases
Division 2.2: Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
Division 2.3: Toxic gases
Class 2 consists of compressed gases, gases in their liquefied form, refrigerated gases, mixtures of gases with other vapours and products charged with gases or aerosols. These are considered hazardous goods for many reasons; often they are flammable, they can oxidize (chemically react with oxygen), act as asphyxiates and be toxic or corrosive.
Although it is a lot easier to identify gases based on their physical states and substances, identifying the most commonly transported gases is still worthwhile.
Aerosols Compressed air Hydrocarbon gas-powered devices Fire extinguishers Gas cartridges Fertilizer ammoniating solution Insecticide gases Refrigerant gases Lighters Acetylene / Oxyacetylene Carbon dioxide Helium / helium compounds Hydrogen / hydrogen compounds Oxygen / oxygen compounds Nitrogen / nitrogen compounds Natural gas Oil gas Petroleum gases Butane Propane Ethane Methane Dimethyl ether Propene / propylene Ethylene
Flammable liquids are liquids, mixtures of liquids or liquids containing solids that require a much lower temperature than others to ignite – often temperatures that may be reached during transportation. Due to this, flammable liquids are very volatile and easily combustible. This means that these goods will need to be transported more carefully and with their individual needs in mind.
Again, some of these products may surprise you, so it's worth perusing the list.
Acetone Paints, lacquers and varnishes Alcohols Perfumery products Gasoline / Petrol Diesel fuel Aviation fuel Liquid bio-fuels Coal tar Petroleum crude oil Adhesives Gas oil Shale oil Heating oil Kerosene Resins Tars Turpentine Carbonate insecticides Organ chlorine pesticides Organ phosphorus pesticides Copper based pesticides Esters Ethers Ethanol Benzene Methanol Octanes
Class 4 - Flammable Solids
CLASS 4 – FLAMMABLE SOLIDS; SUBSTANCES LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION; SUBSTANCES WHICH EMIT FLAMMABLE GASES WHEN IN CONTACT WITH WATER SUB-DIVISONS
Division 4.1: Flammable solids
Division 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Division 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
What are Class 4 dangerous goods and why are they classed as dangerous?
Flammable solids are classified as products that are easily combustible and likely to cause or contribute to fire under the conditions they'll encounter in transport. This is usually due to a number of factors – some goods are self-reactive and can have strong exothermic reactions, some are liable to spontaneously heat up in normal conditions and some goods even heat up on contact with air. All of these things means that these products are liable to catch alight.
Examples Of Commonly Transported Class 4 Flammable Solids
Alkali metals Metal powders Aluminium phosphide Sodium batteries Sodium cells Firelighters Matches Calcium carbide Camphor Carbon Activated carbon Celluloid Cerium Copra Seed cake Oily cotton waste Desensitized explosives Oily fabrics Oily fibres Ferro cerium Iron oxide (spent Iron sponge/direct-reduced iron (spent) Met aldehyde Naphthalene Nitrocellulose Phosphorus Sulphur
Class 5 - Oxidising Substances and Organic Peroxides
CLASS 5 – OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES; ORGANIC PEROXIDES SUB-DIVISONS
Division 5.1: Oxidizing substances
Division 5.1: Organic peroxides
What are Class 5 dangerous goods and why are they classed as dangerous?
Class 5 goods – AKA oxidizers – are substances that can cause or be party to combustion typically by yielding oxygen as a product of chemical reactions. Although oxidizers are not necessarily combustible individually, the oxygen they yield can cause combustion with other materials.
Organic peroxides, on the other hand, are likely to combust individually. An organic peroxide is a substance formed of organic compounds that are derivative of hydrogen peroxide; in organic peroxide, however, one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure is replaced by organic radicals. Due to their nature, organic peroxides are thermally unstable and can give off heat.
Examples of Commonly Transported Class 5 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides
Chemical oxygen generators Ammonium nitrate fertilizers Chlorates Nitrates Nitrites Perchlorates Permanganates Per sulphates Aluminium nitrate Ammonium dichromate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium per sulphate Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium peroxide Hydrogen peroxide Magnesium peroxide Lead nitrate Lithium hypochlorite Potassium chlorate Potassium nitrate Potassium chlorate Potassium perchlorate Potassium permanganate Sodium nitrate Sodium per sulphate
Division 6.1: Toxic substances
Division 6.2: Infectious substances
This one's pretty obvious; toxic substances are, well, toxic – they're liable to cause death, serious injury or significant harm to human or animal health if they come into contact. This can be through swallowing, inhalation or skin contact.
Infectious substances are again, reasonably obvious; infectious substances are infectious and are likely to cause disease in humans or animals. These substances are classified as substances that are known or expected to contain pathogens. (Pathogens are also known as micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi and more.)
The goods in Class 6 pose a large risk to animal and human health, which is why they need to be handled cautiously.
Medical/Biomedical waste Clinical waste Biological cultures / samples / specimens Medical cultures / samples / specimens Tear gas substances Motor fuel anti-knock mixture Dyes Carbonate pesticides Alkaloids Alkyls Acids Arsenates Arsenates Cyanides Thiols/mercaptans Cresols Barium compounds Arsenics / arsenic compounds Beryllium/ beryllium compounds Lead compounds Mercury compounds Nicotine / nicotine compounds Selenium compounds Antimony Ammonium metvanadate Adiponitrile Chloroform Dichloromethane Hexachlorophene Phenol Resorcinol
Class 7 goods are radioactive materials that emit ionizing radiation when they experience radioactive decay. This presents risks to human health.
Radioactive material is defined as any material that contains radionuclides that exceed certain values on its activity concentration and total activity. Radionuclides are atoms with an unstable nucleus – unstable nuclei release radioactive energy.
Radioactive ores Medical isotopes Yellowcake Density gauges Mixed fission products Surface contaminated objects Caesium radionuclides / isotopes Iridium radionuclides / isotopes Americium radionuclides / isotopes Plutonium radionuclides / isotopes Radium radionuclides / isotopes Thorium radionuclides / isotopes Uranium radionuclides / isotopes Depleted uranium / depleted uranium products Uranium hexafluoride Enriched Uranium
Class 8 dangerous goods are defined as dangerous goods because they are corrosive. Due to their nature, corrosive substances cause chemical reactions that degrade or disintegrate other materials when they come into contact with each other.
This can cause severe injury when coming into contact with living tissue – however, in terms of transport, it can also damage and destroy surrounding materials if not transported properly.
Acids/acid solutions Batteries Battery fluid Fuel cell cartridges Dyes Fire extinguisher charges Formaldehyde Flux Paints Alkyl phenols Amines Polyamines Sulphides Polysulphides Chlorides Chlorosilanes Bromine Cyclohexylamine Phenol / carbolic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrochloric acid Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Sludge acid Hydrogen fluoride Iodine Morphine
Goods in Class 9 of dangerous goods are simply products that present dangers during transport that haven't been covered in the other classes.
Some of the items this class includes, but is not limited to, include:
Dry ice / cardice / solid carbon dioxide Expandable polymeric beads / polystyrene beads Ammonium nitrate fertilizers Blue asbestos / crocidolite Lithium ion batteries Lithium metal batteries Battery powered equipment Battery powered vehicles Fuel cell engines Internal combustion engines Vehicles Magnetized material Dangerous goods in apparatus Dangerous goods in machinery Genetically modified organisms Genetically modified micro-organisms Chemical kits First aid kits Lifesaving appliances Air bag modules Seatbelt pretensioners Plastics moulding compound Castor bean plant products Polychlorinated biphenyls Polychlorinated terphenyls Dibromodifluoromethane Benzaldehyde